When it comes to medicine or industrial work and buying and selling various products, we only realize how fast science is advancing. The equipment and methods we used in our lives The medicines we used and the problems we had with some tools change every year, and over time we can use the products of the world of science in our lives. New methods of surgery and medical drugs, new information that affects our understanding of the world around us, the faster and easier the many processes and the use of tools and equipment are due to these annual studies of researchers.
Some of them are very direct and some of them affect human life in ways we do not think about. This year, too, researchers have been exploring and innovating in scientific centers, and in the end, they have achieved achievements, the review of which is not without merit for the end of the year and the beginning of the new year. Join us to see what happened in the world of science last year?
Accurate knowledge of unknown DNA fragments
Our world is very similar to the world of chimpanzees, which are evolutionarily the closest living relatives of humans. Stem cell researchers have found a part of our DNA that has not been studied before, and it seems that studying this unencrypted DNA could explain why our brains work differently. During this study, researchers used human and chimpanzee brain cells to grow stem cells, compared the two types of cells, and found that humans and chimpanzees used different strains of their DNA. they do. But basically why is it important for researchers to know these differences between humans and chimpanzees? The answer to this question helps what was the process that made the human brain work today and build communities, educate its children, and help develop technology and science? Knowing genetics and answering questions in this area can also help treat some psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. On the other hand, the results of these studies show that the basis of human brain evolution is genetic mechanisms, which is probably much more complex than previously thought, because the answer was assumed to be two percent of genetic DNA. Our results show that what already existed. Instead, it may be hidden in 98% of neglected, important for brain development, which seems important. This is an amazing finding.
Global warming and climate change are changing the shape of animals
Climate change has created many problems for all living things on the planet, including animals trying to adapt to these changes. For example, some warm-blooded animals are deformed, and their beaks, legs, and ears have become larger so that they can better regulate their body temperature as the planet warms. Several species of mice have reportedly increased their tail sizes, and some species of Australian parrots have longer beaks. To better understand these changes, researchers are trying to examine 3D bird scans of museum birds over the past 100 years. Of course, it should be noted that these changes do not mean that the animals have come to terms with the warming of the planet’s air and the conditions are good and there is no need to worry, but it does mean that the animals are changing to survive in the current situation. are. What is the environmental consequence of these changes is not yet clear. The important question that arises is whether all species are capable of change for survival?
RNA and rescue vaccines
While the first vaccine made from the gene was approved last December, it was in 2021 that scientists finally realized how effective the Pfizer injection was in the real world. The idea is that this genetic material, known as ribonucleic acid, or RNA for short, is transported to cells where antigens are made to protect against disease and death. Two other things make RNA (messenger) vaccines noticeable and different from other vaccines. First, it took 10 months from vaccine development to approval, while vaccines typically take a decade to prepare. The second was that RNA vaccines were packaged in fine fat particles, and the process of delivering RNA to cells in the human body was completely healthy and hassle-free. During the development of these vaccines and the fight against coronary heart disease, another important point became clear to researchers that vaccines prevent severe diseases but can not always stop the transmission of the disease. Late last year, the third phase of the Novovac vaccine clinical trial began in the United States and the United Kingdom, and the results will be available by early 2022. This vaccine is based on the spicovirus protein. If these steps are done successfully, the company can prepare two billion doses of it each year. Johnson & Andjanson is also testing its own vaccine vaccine, unlike the Pfizer and Modern vaccines, which must be given in two phases. Russia and China were also among the countries that made significant efforts to produce the vaccine.
Carbon-free land is a dream or a near achievement
Following the Paris Climate Agreement in 2015, some countries will once again gather in November next year to convene the UN Climate Change Summit and pledge to halt greenhouse gas emissions in Glasgow, Scotland. China, the world’s largest producer of carbon dioxide, and the European Union plan to reduce their carbon emissions by the next 30 to 40 years. Neutral level means to increase the amount of greenhouse gas emissions to the level of absorption of this gas from the Earth’s atmosphere using afforestation and carbon capture and storage technologies. It is unknown at this time what he will do after leaving the post, but Biden has previously said he would return to the Paris climate agreement.